Department of Translation Theory

Перечень специальностей

1-21 80 03 «Германские языки»

Содержание вступительного экзамена в магистратуру

Теория и практика перевода (английский язык)

Вступительный экзамен в магистратуру проводится в форме устного опроса поступающих членами государственной экзаменационной комиссии. Экзамен является способом выявления у поступающих уровня знаний по дисциплинам специальности, а также уровня знания иностранного языка и степени сформированности иноязычных коммуникативных умений

Вступительный экзамен в магистратуру предусматривает включение в экзаменационный билет трех вопросов:

1. Ответ на теоретический вопрос по одной из дисциплин специальности (переводоведению, лексикологии, стилистике, введению в спецфилологию, типологии родного и иностранного языка, основам кросскультурного общения).

2. Чтение, лингвостилистический анализ иноязычного текста, письменный перевод выделенного фрагмента текста объемом до 1000 знаков. Поступающим в магистратуру предлагаются цельные по содержанию и структурно законченные тексты широкого тематического и жанрово-стилистического спектра (социально-политические, экономические, деловые, научные и научно-популярные) объемом 2500 – 3000 знаков.

3. Монологическое высказывание по теме. Беседа по теме. Учитывается лексическая, грамматическая, фонетическая правильность речи, темп речи, логичность, спонтанность и аргументированность ответа.

Список теоретических вопросов к вступительному экзамену в магистратуру по дисциплинам специальности

1.English Vocabulary as a System. Semantic Classification of English Vocabulary

Types of semantic relations (proximity, equivalence, inclusion, opposition). Semantic classification of words. Synonymy, classification of synonyms. Lexical and terminological sets, lexico-semantic groups, semantic fields. Antonymy, classification of antonyms. Word formation. Derivation. Word-building as the main ways of enriching vocabulary, ways of word-building in modern English: affixation, composition, conversion, abbreviation.

2.ENGLISH  Phraseology

Phraseological units and free word combinations. Criteria of phraseological units. Semantic classification of phraseological units. Syntactic classification of phraseological units. Structural classification of phraseological units. Sources of phraseological units.

3.The place of grammar in the system of language

The main notions of grammar: grammatical meaning, grammatical form, grammatical categories. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations as the subject of study of theoretical grammar. Types of grammatical categories.

4.Language and Culture

What is language? Functions of language. Society and language. Language as a bridge between the biological and cultural aspects of life. Attempts to explain language: evolutionists’ approach (Otto Jespersen) to language phenomena. The transition of language from the expressive to the referential function (Edward Sapir). Noam Chomsky’s vision of language. Characteristics of culture. Multiple interpretations of culture.

5.Variants and dialects of the English Language

Difference between variants and dialects of a language. Main variants of English: variants of English in the United Kingdom and variants of English outside the British Isles. Peculiarities of British and American English. Local dialects in Great Britain. Local dialects in the USA. Social variations of the English language.

6.GENERAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION THEORY

Translation as a notion and subject. Forms of translation: written translation (written translation of written texts, written translation of oral texts), oral forms of translation (oral translation of oral texts, oral translation of written texts). Types of translation: oral translation (consecutive translation, simultaneous translation, note-taking in consecutive translation), written translation (machine automatic), computer-aided, manual (human) translation). The notion of professional translation. Literal translation, word-for-word translation, liberal translation. Translation equivalence; adequacy in translation. Professional requirements and responsibilities of a translator. General mistakes in translation.

7.TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION

The necessity and the relevance of transformation in the translation process. Basic types of transformations: transplantation, transcription and transliteration, calque, explanatory translation, descriptive translation, omission, addition, transposition, change of grammatical forms (grammatical transformation), loss-of-meaning compensation, concretization, generalization, antonymic translation, sentence integration, sentence fragmentation, meaning extension or sense development.

8.Lexical aspect of translation

Difficulties concerning lexical aspect of translation. Types of lexical correspondences: classification of correspondence types between two lexical units in source text and target text. False friends, lexicon and terminology. Classification of terms. Extended attributive terms. Abbreviations and acronyms. Strategies of translating lexical items. Translation of proper names of people, organizations, places.

9.Grammatical Aspect of Translation

Grammatical translation transformations at syntactic level: change of grammatical forms, antonymic translation, sentence integration (compression), sentence fragmentation, complete transformation. Grammatical division of the sentence in different languages and word order. Translation of passive constructions. Translation of infinitive, gerundial and participial constructions.

10.Translation and Culture

Cultural aspect of the text translation and cultural transportation. Translation as a creative reformulation with clear effects on the content. Translation as a process of cultural de-coding, re-coding and en-coding. The Integrated Approach in translation.

11.THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION: CONTENT AND FORM IN TRANSLATION

Еlements in the philosophy underlying translation theories of utterance production and comprehension. The process of saying. The referential and cognitive aspects dominating in spoken language. Thought and language as autonomous notions. Meanings as mental things in the minds of language users. Translation as a creative reformulation with clear effects on the content.

12.Stylistics AS A BRANCH OF GENERAL LINGUISTICS

The subject and object of stylistics. Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary. Stylistically marked words. Neutral, common literary and common colloquial vocabulary. The opposition of emotionally coloured and emotionally neutral vocabulary. Specific literary vocabulary: terms, poetic and highly literary words, archaic words, barbarisms and foreign words. General classification of functional styles.

13.CLASSIFICATION OF Expressive means and stylistic devices

Stylistic devices employed in different language styles: functions, classification, effects. Alliteration, allusion, anaphora, antithesis, assonance, climax, euphemism, hyperbole, inversion, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, repetition, simile, rhetorical questions, personification, synaesthesia etc.

14.Publicistic style: functional and verbal aspects, substyles and varieties.

The general aim of the publicistic style. Basic verbal and functional features of the style. Spoken and written varieties of the publicistic style: oratories and speeches, radio and TV commentaries, essays, journalistic articles. The essay: functional, language and structural features. Types of journalistic articles.

15.Newspaper writing.

Lexical and grammatical features. The purpose of the newspaper style. Basic features of the newspaper language: specific vocabulary, stereotypical forms of expression, elements of appraisal, elements of emotive syntax, grammatical parameters of newspaper writing etc. Associated Press Style.

Образец текста для чтения, анализа, перевода (фрагмента) со словарем

Now that the sun has gone down

A shrill cry is currently to be heard from extremist separatist movements in some Commonwealth countries, including New Zealand, to the effect that the British should apologise, and preferably grovel and pay compensation for their past treatment of the natives and for our whole colonial past. This call should be firmly resisted.

No historian of the Empire can deny that there were dark episodes in the extraordinary saga of how a very small country with a small population discovered and colonised vast areas and enormous numbers of people throughout the world. Our forebears were not uniformly admirable or gentle, and many were cruel and ruthless, but remarkably, this amazing achievement was in the main bloodless. British rule and influence were significantly, and exceptionally, benevolent. The cruelty and exploitation were puny compared with the records of the Spaniards in Latin America, and Belgians in the Congo, the Portuguese and the Germans in Africa, the French in Algeria and Indo-China, or the Dutch in their possessions. The North American Indians fared much better in British Canada than in the United States.

Every other empire in world history has disintegrated in blood circumstances, and with enduring bitterness. The last chapters of the British Empire were, with some exceptions, totally different. Ironically, the greatest failure of all was in Ireland, so physically close but in almost every other respect so distant.

Britain’s rule and contribution are now more than ever appreciated by serious historians and thoughtful people in the former colonies and dominions, where it is recognised that the arrival of the civilised British was the best thing that ever happened.

Indeed Maori discontent has reached fever pitch only after enormous efforts have been made to right past wrongs. Last year, New Zealand’s Government offered them a settlement worth almost £500 million. King George VI never forgot his official visit to New Zealand and Australia in 1927, and longed to return. Both he and his elder brother had special feelings for Canada, and later for South Africa. The Queen in turn shares these affections, and modern transport has enabled her to be the most travelled and most knowledgeable of all British monarchs.

Despite its shortcomings, the Empire had a sense of service which inspired generations of colonial administrators, doctors, missionaries and teachers to work in adverse climates and often vile conditions for low pay and with the threat of early death. Blessedly, that tradition survives in British volunteers throughout the world.

If British colonialism had been as awful as some now say, hundreds of thousands of young men in the old Empire – including the gallant Maoris – would not have volunteered so enthusiastically to fight for the British cause in 1914 and 1939. The more one considers the record, the more one appreciates that «the gain hath the advantage, and the loss does not bear down the scale».

Sir Robert Rhodes James,

The Times, November 3, 1999

Список вопросов для устного монологического высказывания и беседы с экзаменаторами на вступительном экзамене в магистратуру:

  1. Your personal data: family and social background
  2. Your university / institute study
  3. Your future studies: purpose, expectations, scientific sphere you are interested in
  4. Your future professional career
  5. Famous scientists working in the field of your concern
  6. What do you know about your future scientific speciality?
  7. How master’s degree can help you with your future professional activities?
  8. Have you ever worked as translator / interpreter?
  9. What another foreign language would you like to learn and why?

Guide for newspaper article analysis

  1. Identify: the type of the newspaper article, the author’s overall purpose, the functions of the headline, the structure of the article: the lead, the body, the conclusion.
  2. Give a short summary of the article.
  3. Define the central idea of the article.
  4. Define the prevailing mood (tone) of the article. (It may be lyrical, dramatic, tragic, optimistic / pessimistic, melodramatic, sentimental, emotional / unemotional, pathetic, dry and matter-of-fact, gloomy, bitter, sarcastic, cheerful, etc.).
  5. Comment upon the language means employed by the author and their role in the narration (analyze vocabulary employed in the article: neutral, emotionally-colored, common literary, colloquial, special terms, newspaper cliches, abbreviations, neologisms; stylistic devices; grammatical constructions, types of sentences).
  6. Point out the facts that turned out to be new for you.
  7. Speak on the conclusion the author comes to.

Справочная литература:

  1. Алексеева И.С. Профессиональное обучение переводчика: Учебное пособие по устному и письменному переводу для переводчиков и преподавателей. – СПб.: Изд-во «Союз», 2001. – 288с.
  2. Алексеева Л.М. Специфика научного перевода: Учебное пособие по спецкурсу. – Пермь: Изд-во Пермского университета, 2002. – 125с.
  3. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка. – Л., 1990. – 301 с.
  4. Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод. – М.: Междунар. отношения, 1975. – 240 с.
  5. Блох М.Я. Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка (на англ.яз.). – М.: Высшая школа, 2004г. – 471с.
  6. Бреус, Е.В. Основы теории и практики перевода с русского языка на английский. – М.: УРАО, 2002. – 208 с.
  7. Бурак А.Л. Translating Culture: Перевод и межкультурная коммуникация. Этап 1: уровень слова. – М.: МГЛУ, 1999. – 216с.
  8. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. – М., 1997. – 335 с.
  9. Гутнер М.Д. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский общественно-политических текстов. – М.: Высшая школа, 1982. – 164 с.
  10. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода. English – Russian: Учебное  пособие. –СПб.: Лениздат, Изд-во «Союз», 2002. – 320с.
  11. Казакова Т.А. Художественный перевод. Теория и практика: учебник. – СПб.: ООО Инязиздат, 2006. – 544 с.
  12. Комиссаров В.Н. Общая теория перевода. Проблемы переводоведения в освещении зарубежных ученых: Учебное пособие. – М.: УЕРО, 1999. – 134с.
  13. Комиссаров В.Н. Современное переводоведение. Курс лекций. – М.: ЭТС, 2000. –192с.
  14. Комиссаров В.Н. Современное переводоведение. – М.: Высшая школа, 2002. – 421 с.
  15. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода. – М.: Высшая школа, 1990. – 170 с.
  16. Кухаренко В.А. Практикум по стилистике английского языка. – М., 1986. – 144 с.
  17. Латышев Л.К. Межъязыковые трансформации как средство достижения переводческой эквивалентности. – М., 1986. – 267 с.
  18. Латышев Л.К. Технология перевода. – М., 2001. – 158 с.
  19. Левицкая Т.P. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский. – М.: Высшая школа, 1973. – 135 с.
  20. Люткин И.Д. Научно-технический перевод с русского языка на английский: Методическое пособие. – М., 1991. – 125с.
  21. Мальцев В.А. Стилистика английского языка. – Мн., 1984. – 117 с.
  22. Мархасёв И.Р., Зайцева В.А. “Reading on Cross-Cultural Communication” / Хрестоматия по основам кросскультурного общения – БГУ, 2006.
  23. Мархасёв И.Р., Зайцева В.А. Учебно-методическое пособие «Чтение и анализ газетных текстов» = “Newspaper Critical Reading” – Минск БГУ, 2010. – 120 с.
  24. Мархасёв И.Р., Зайцева В.А.  Учебно-методическое пособие “American or British?” – Минск БГУ, 2008. – 158 с.
  25. Мешков О., Лэмберт М. Практикум по переводу с русского языка на английский. – М.: НВИ – ТЕЗАУРУС, 2002. – 116с.
  26. Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика – М.: Междунар. отношения, 1974. – 268 с.
  27. Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод английской научной и технической литературы. Лексико-грамматический справочник. – М., 2006– 382с.
  28. Слепович В.С. Курс перевода с английского языка на русский.– Минск, 2002.
  29. Слепович В.С. Курс перевода. – Минск: ТетраСистемс, 2006. – 320 c.
  30. Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода (лингвистические проблемы). – 4-е изд. – М.: Высшая школа, 1983. – 303 с.
  31. Швейцер А.Д. Перевод и лингвистика. – М., 1973. – 280 с.
  32. Crystal D., Davy D. Investigating English style. – L.: Longman, 1973. – 264
  33. Gutner M.D. A guide to translation from English into Russian. – M.: Высшая школа, 1982. – 167 p.
  34. Komissarov V.N. A manual of translation from English into Russian. – М.: Высшая школа, 1990. – 127 p.